FDIC Law, Regulations, Related Acts
7500 - FRB Regulations
Subpart CNonbanking Activities and Acquisitions by Bank Holding Companies
§ 225.21 Prohibited nonbanking activities and acquisitions; exempt bank holding companies.
(a) Prohibited nonbanking activities and acquisitions. Except as provided in § 225.22 of this subpart, a bank holding company or a subsidiary may not engage in, or acquire or control, directly or indirectly, voting securities or assets of a company engaged in, any activity other than:
(1) Banking or managing or controlling banks and other subsidiaries authorized under the BHC Act; and
(2) An activity that the Board determines to be so closely related to banking, or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto, including any incidental activities that are necessary to carry on such an activity, if the bank holding company has obtained the prior approval of the Board for that activity in accordance with the requirements of this regulation.
(b) Exempt bank holding companies. The following bank holding companies are exempt from the provisions of this subpart:
(1) Family-owned companies. Any company that is a "company covered in 1970," (as defined in section 2(b) of the BHC Act), more than 85 percent of the voting securities of which was collectively owned on June 30, 1968, and continuously thereafter, by members of the same family (or their spouses) who are lineal descendants of common ancestors.
(2) Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations. Any company that was on January 4, 1977, both a bank holding company and a labor, agricultural, or horticultural organization exempt from taxation under section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 501(c)).
(3) Companies granted hardship exemption. Any bank holding company that has controlled only one bank since before July 1, 1968, and that has been granted an exemption by the Board under section 4(d) of the BHC Act, subject to any conditions inposed by the Board.
(4) Companies granted exemption on other grounds. Any company that acquired control of a bank before December 10, 1982, without the Board's prior approval under section 3 of the BHC Act, on the basis of a narrow interpretation of the term demand deposit or commercial loan, if the Board has determined that:
(i) Coverage of the company as a bank holding company under this subpart would be unfair or represent an unreasonable hardship; and
(ii) Exclusion of the company from coverage under this part is consistent with the purposes of the BHC Act and section 106 of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12 U.S.C. 1971, 1972(1)). The provisions of § 225.4 of subpart A of this part do not apply to a company exempt under this paragraph.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 225.21]
§ 225.22 Exempt nonbanking activities and acquisitions.
(a) Certain de novo activities. A bank holding company may, either directly or indirectly, engage de novo in any nonbanking activity listed in § 225.28(b) (other than operation of an insured depository institution) without obtaining the Board's prior approval if the bank holding company:
(1) Meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1), (2), and (6) of § 225.23;
(2) Conducts the activity in compliance with all Board orders and regulations governing the activity; and
(3) Within 10 business days after commencing the activity, provides written notice to the appropriate Reserve Bank describing the activity, identifying the company or companies engaged in the activity, and certifying that the activity will be conducted in accordance with the Board's orders and regulations and that the bank holding company meets the requirements of paragraphs (c)(1), (2), and (6) of § 225.23.
(b) Servicing activities. A bank holding company may, without the Board's prior approval under this subpart, furnish services to or perform services for, or establish or acquire a company that engages solely in servicing activities for:
(1) The bank holding company or its subsidiaries in connection with their activities as authorized by law, including services that are necessary to fulfill commitments entered into by the subsidiaries with third parties, if the bank holding company or servicing company complies with the Board's published interpretations and does not act as principal in dealing with third parties; and
(2) The internal operations of the bank holding company or its subsidiaries. Services for the internal operations of the bank holding company or its subsidiaries include, but are not limited to:
(i) Accounting, auditing, and appraising;
(ii) Advertising and public relations;
(iii) Data processing and data transmission services, data bases or facilities;
(iv) Personnel services;
(v) Courier services;
(vi) Holding or operating property used wholly or substantially by a subsidiary in its operations or for its future use;
(vii) Liquidating property acquired from a subsidiary;
(viii) Liquidating property acquired from any sources either prior to May 9, 1956, or the date on which the company became a bank holding company, whichever is later; and
(ix) Selling, purchasing, or underwriting insurance, such as blanket bond insurance, group insurance for employees, and property and casualty insurance.
(c) Safe deposit business. A bank holding company or nonbank subsidiary may, without the Board's prior approval, conduct a safe deposit business, or acquire voting securities of a company that conducts such a business.
(d) Nonbanking acquisitions not requiring prior Board approval. The Board's prior approval is not required under this subpart for the following acquisitions:
(1) DPC acquisitions. (i) Voting securities or assets, acquired by foreclosure or otherwise, in the ordinary course of collecting a debt previously contracted (DPC property) in good faith, if the DPC property is divested within two years of acquisition.
(ii) The Board may, upon request, extend this two-year period for up to three additional years. The Board may permit additional extensions for up to 5 years (for a total of 10 years), for shares, real estate or other assets where the holding company demonstrates that each extension would not be detrimental to the public interest and either the bank holding company has made good faith attempts to dispose of such shares, real estate or other assets or disposal of the shares, real estate or other assets during the initial period would have been detrimental to the company.
(iii) Transfers of DPC property within the bank holding company system do not extend any period for divestiture of the property.
(2) Securities or assets required to be divested by subsidiary. Voting securities or assets required to be divested by a subsidiary at the request of an examining federal or state authority (except by the Board under the BHC Act or this regulation), if the bank holding company divests the securities or assets within two years from the date acquired from the subsidiary.
(3) Fiduciary investments. Voting securities or assets acquired by a bank or other company (other than a trust that is a company) in good faith in a fiduciary capacity, if the voting securities or assets are:
(i) Held in the ordinary course of business; and
(ii) Not acquired for the benefit of the company or its shareholders, employees, or subsidiaries.
(4) Securities eligible for investment by a national bank. Voting securities of the kinds and amounts explicitly eligible by federal statute (other than section 4 of the Bank Service Corporation Act, 12 U.S.C. 1864) for investment by a national bank, and voting securities acquired prior to June 30, 1971, in reliance on section 4(c)(5) of the BHC Act and interpretations of the Comptroller of the Currency under section 5136 of the Revised Statutes (12 U.S.C. 24(7)).
(5) Securities or property representing 5 percent or less of a company. Voting securities of a company or property that, in the aggregate, represent 5 percent or less of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities of a company or a 5 percent interest or less in the property, subject to the provisions of 12 CFR 225.137.
(6) Securities of investment company. Voting securities of an investment company that is solely engaged in investing in securities and that does not own or control more than 5 percent of the outstanding shares of any class of voting securities of any company.
(7) Assets acquired in the ordinary course of business. Assets of a company acquired in the ordinary course of business, subject to the provisions of 12 CFR 225.132, if the assets relate to activities in which the acquiring company has previously received Board approval under this regulation to engage.
(8) Asset acquisitions by lending company or industrial bank. Assets of an office(s) of a company, all or substantially all of which relate to making, acquiring, or servicing loans if:
(i) The acquiring company has previously received Board approval under this regulation or is not required to obtain prior Board approval under this regulation to engage in lending activities or industrial banking activities;
(ii) The assets acquired during any 12-month period do not represent more than 50 percent of the risk-weighted assets (on a consolidated basis) of the acquiring lending company or industrial bank, or more than $100 million, whichever amount is less;
(iii) The assets acquired do not represent more than 50 percent of the selling company's consolidated assets that are devoted to lending activities or industrial banking business;
(iv) The acquiring company notifies the Reserve Bank of the acquisition within 30 days after the acquisition; and
(v) The acquiring company, after giving effect to the transaction, meets the requirements of 12 CFR part 17, and the Board has not previously notified the acquiring company that it may not acquire assets under the exemption in this paragraph (d).
(e) Acquisition of securities by subsidiary banks.--(1) National bank. A national bank or its subsidiary may, without the Board's approval under this subpart, acquire or retain securities on the basis of section 4(c)(5) of the BHC Act in accordance with the regulations of the Comptroller of the Currency.
(2) State bank. A state-chartered bank or its subsidiary may, insofar as federal law is concerned, and without the Board's prior approval under this subpart:
(i) Acquire or retain securities, on the basis of section 4(c)(5) of the BHC Act, of the kinds and amounts explicitly eligible by federal statute for investment by a national bank; or
(ii) Acquire or retain all (but, except for directors' qualifying shares, not less than all) of the securities of a company that engages solely in activities in which the parent bank may engage, at locations at which the bank may engage in the activity, and subject to the same limitations as if the bank were engaging in the activity directly.
(f) Activities and securities of new bank holding companies. A company that becomes a bank holding company may, for a period of two years, engage in nonbanking activities and control voting securities or assets of a nonbank subsidiary, if the bank holding company engaged in such activities or controlled such voting securities or assets on the date it became a bank holding company. The Board may grant requests for up to three one-year extensions of the two-year period.
(g) Grandfathered activities and securities. Unless the Board orders divestiture or termination under section 4(a)(2) of the BHC Act, a "company covered in 1970," as defined in section 2(b) of the BHC Act, may:
(1) Retain voting securities or assets and engage in activities that it has lawfully held or engaged in continuously since June 30, 1968; and
(h) Securities or activities exempt under Regulation K. A bank holding company may acquire voting securities or assets and engage in activities as authorized in Regulation K (12 CFR Part 211).
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 225.22]
§ 225.23 Expedited action for certain nonbanking proposals by well-run bank holding companies.
(a) Filing of notice--(1) Information required. A bank holding company that meets the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section may satisfy the notice requirement of this subpart in connection with the acquisition of voting securities or assets of a company engaged in nonbanking activities that the Board has permitted by order or regulation (other than an insured depository institution),2 or a proposal to engage de novo, either directly or indirectly, in a nonbanking activity that the Board has permitted by order or by regulation, by providing the appropriate Reserve Bank with a written notice containing the following:
(i) A certification that all of the criteria in paragraph (c) of this section are met;
(ii) A description of the transaction that includes identification of the companies involved in the transaction, the activities to be conducted, and a commitment to conduct the proposed activities in conformity with the Board's regulations and orders governing the conduct of the proposed activity;
(iii) If the proposal involves an acquisition of a going concern:
(A) If the bank holding company has consolidated assets of $1 billion or more, an abbreviated consolidated pro forma balance sheet for the acquiring bank holding company as of the most recent quarter showing credit and debit adjustments that reflect the proposed transaction, consolidated pro forma risk-based capital ratios for the acquiring bank holding company as of the most recent quarter, a description of the purchase price and the terms and sources of funding for the transaction, and the total revenue and net income of the company to be acquired;
(B) If the bank holding company has consolidated assets of less than $1 billion, a pro forma parent-only balance sheet as of the most recent quarter showing credit and debit adjustments that reflect the proposed transaction, a description of the purchase price and the terms and sources of funding for the transaction and the sources and schedule for retiring any debt incurred in the transaction, and the total assets, off-balance sheet items, revenue and net income of the company to be acquired;
(C) For each insured depository institution whose Tier 1 capital, total capital, total assets or risk-weighted assets change as a result of the transaction, the total risk-weighted assets, total assets, Tier 1 capital and total capital of the institution on a pro forma basis;
(iv) Identification of the geographic markets in which competition would be affected by the proposal, a description of the effect of the proposal on competition in the relevant markets, a list of the major competitors in that market in the proposed activity if the affected market is local in nature, and, if requested, the market indexes for the relevant market; and
(v) A description of the public benefits that can reasonably be expected to result from the transaction.
(2) Waiver of unnecessary information. The Reserve Bank may reduce the information requirements in paragraphs (a)(1)(iii) and (iv) of this section as appropriate.
(b)(1) Action on proposals under this section. The Board or the appropriate Reserve Bank shall act on a proposal submitted under this section, or notify the bank holding company that the transaction is subject to the procedure in § 225.24, within 12 business days following the filing of all of the information required in paragraph (a) of this section.
(2) Acceptance of notice if expedited procedure not available. If the Board or the Reserve Bank determines, after the filing of a notice under this section, that a bank holding company may not use the procedure in this section and must file a notice under § 225.24, the notice shall be deemed accepted for purposes of § 225.24 as of the date that the notice was filed under this section.
(c) Criteria for use of expedited procedure. The procedure in this section is available only if:
(1) Well-capitalized organization--(i) Bank holding company. Both at the time of and immediately after the proposed transaction, the acquiring bank holding company is well-capitalized;
(ii) Insured depository institutions. Both at the time of and immediately after the transaction:
(A) The lead insured depository institution of the acquiring bank holding company is well-capitalized;
(B) Well-capitalized insured depository institutions control at least 80 percent of the total risk-weighted assets of insured depository institutions controlled by the acquiring bank holding company; and
(C) No insured depository institution controlled by the acquiring bank holding company is undercapitalized;
(2) Well-managed organization--(i) Satisfactory examination ratings. At the time of the transaction, the acquiring bank holding company, its lead insured depository institution, and insured depository institutions that control at least 80 percent of the total risk-weighted assets of insured depository institutions controlled by the holding company are well-managed and have received at least a satisfactory rating for compliance at their most recent examination if such rating was given;
(ii) No poorly managed institutions. No insured depository institution controlled by the acquiring bank holding company has received 1 of the 2 lowest composite ratings at the later of the institution's most recent examination or subsequent review by the appropriate federal banking agency for the institution.
(iii) Recently acquired institutions excluded. Any insured depository institution that has been acquired by the bank holding company during the 12-month period preceding the date on which written notice is filed under paragraph (a) of this section may be excluded for purposes of paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section if:
(A) The bank holding company has developed a plan acceptable to the appropriate federal banking agency for the institution to restore the capital and management of the institution; and
(B) All insured depository institutions excluded under this paragraph represent, in the aggregate, less than 10 percent of the aggregate total risk-weighted assets of all insured depository institutions controlled by the bank holding company;
(3) Permissible activity. (i) The Board has determined by regulation or order that each activity proposed to be conducted is so closely related to banking, or managing or controlling banks, as to be a proper incident thereto; and
(ii) The Board has not indicated that proposals to engage in the activity are subject to the notice procedure provided in § 225.24;
(4) Competitive criteria--(i) Competitive screen. In the case of the acquisition of a going concern, the acquisition, without regard to any divestitures proposed by the acquiring bank holding company, does not cause:
(A) The acquiring bank holding company to control in excess of 35 percent of the market share in any relevant market; or
(B) The Herfindahl-Hirschman index to increase by more than 200 points in any relevant market with a post-acquisition index of at least 1800; and
(5) Size of acquisition--(i) In general--(A) Limited growth. Except as provided in paragraph (c)(5)(ii) of this section, the sum of aggregate risk-weighted assets to be acquired in the proposal and the aggregate risk-weighted assets acquired by the acquiring bank holding company in all other qualifying transactions does not exceed 35 percent of the consolidated risk-weighted assets of the acquiring bank holding company. For purposes of this paragraph, "other qualifying transactions" means any transaction approved under this section or § 225.14 during the 12 months prior to filing the notice under this section;
(B) Consideration paid. The gross consideration to be paid by the acquiring bank holding company in the proposal does not exceed 15 percent of the consolidated Tier 1 capital of the acquiring bank holding company; and
(C) Individual size limitation. The total risk-weighted assets to be acquired do not exceed $7.5 billion;
(ii) Small bank holding companies. Paragraph (c)(5)(i)(A) of this section shall not apply if, immediately following consummation of the proposed transaction, the consolidated risk-weighted assets of the acquiring bank holding company are less than $300 million.
(6) Supervisory actions. During the 12-month period ending on the date on which the bank holding company proposes to consummate the proposed transaction, no formal administrative order, including a written agreement, cease and desist order, capital directive, prompt corrective action directive, asset maintenance agreement, or other formal enforcement order is or was outstanding against the bank holding company or any insured depository institution subsidiary of the holding company, and no formal administrative enforcement proceeding involving any such enforcement action, order, or directive is or was pending; and
(7) Notification. The bank holding company has not been notified by the Board, in its discretion, prior to the expiration of the period in paragraph (b) of this section that a notice under § 225.24 is required in order to permit closer review of any potential adverse effect or other matter related to the factors that must be considered under this part.
(d) Branches and agencies of foreign banking organizations. For purposes of this section, a U.S. branch or agency of a foreign banking organization shall be considered to be an insured depository institution.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 225.23]
[Section 225.23 amended at 57 Fed. Reg. 28779, June 29, 1992; 59 Fed. Reg. 54803, November 2, 1994; 62 Fed. Reg. 9331, February 28, 1997, effective April 21, 1997; 66 Fed. Reg. 415, January 3, 2001, effective February 2, 2001; 71 Fed. Reg. 9902, February 28, 2006, effective March 30, 2006; 78 Fed. Reg. 62291, October 11, 2013, effective January 1, 2014; amended at 80 Fed. Reg. 20153, April 15, 2015, effective May 2015]
§ 225.24 Procedures for other nonbanking proposals.
(a) Notice required for nonbanking activities. Except as provided in § 225.22 and § 225.23, a notice for the Board's prior approval under § 225.21(a) to engage in or acquire a company engaged in a nonbanking activity shall be filed by a bank holding company (including a company seeking to become a bank holding company) with the appropriate Reserve Bank in accordance with this section and the Board's Rules of Procedure (12 CFR 262.3).
(1) Engaging de novo in listed activities. A bank holding company seeking to commence or to engage de novo, either directly or through a subsidiary, in a nonbanking activity listed in § 225.28 shall file a notice containing a description of the activities to be conducted and the identity of the company that will conduct the activity.
(2) Acquiring company engaged in listed activities. A bank holding company seeking to acquire or control voting securities or assets of a company engaged in a nonbanking activity listed in § 225.28 shall file a notice containing the following:
(i) A description of the proposal, including a description of each proposed activity, and the effect of the proposal on competition among entities engaging in each proposed activity in each relevant market with relevant market indexes;
(ii) The identity of any entity involved in the proposal, and, if the notificant proposes to conduct the activity through an existing subsidiary, a description of the existing activities of the subsidiary;
(iii) A statement of the public benefits that can reasonably be expected to result from the proposal;
(iv) If the bank holding company has consolidated assets of $150 million or more:
(A) Parent company and consolidated pro forma balance sheets for the acquiring bank holding company as of the most recent quarter showing credit and debt adjustments that reflect the proposed transaction;
(B) Consolidated pro forma risk-based capital and leverage ratio calculations for the acquiring bank holding company as of the most recent quarter; and
(C) A description of the purchase price and the terms and sources of funding for the transaction;
(v) If the bank holding company has consolidated assets of less than $150 million:
(A) A pro forma parent-only balance sheet as of the most recent quarter showing credit and debit adjustments that reflect the proposed transaction; and
(B) A description of the purchase price and the terms and sources of funding for the transaction and, if the transaction is debt funded, one-year income statement and cash flow projections for the parent company, and the sources and schedule for retiring any debt incurred in the transaction;
(vi) For each insured depository institution whose Tier 1 capital, total capital, total assets or risk-weighted assets change as a result of the transaction, the total risk-weighted assets, total assets, Tier 1 capital and total capital of the institution on a pro forma basis; and
(vii) A description of the management expertise, internal controls and risk management systems that will be utilized in the conduct of the proposed activities; and
(viii) A copy of the purchase agreements, and balance sheet and income statements for the most recent quarter and year-end for any company to be acquired.
(b) Notice provided to Board. The Reserve Bank shall immediately send to the Board a copy of any notice received under paragraphs (a)(2) or (a)(3) of this section.
(c) Notice to public--(1) Listed activities and activities approved by order--(i) In a case involving an activity listed in § 225.28 or previously approved by the Board by order, the Reserve Bank shall notify the Board for publication in the Federal Register immediately upon receipt by the Reserve Bank of:
(A) A notice under this section; or
(B) A written request that notice of a proposal under this section or § 225.23 be published in the Federal Register. Such a request may request that Federal Register publication occur up to 15 calendar days prior to submission of a notice under this subpart.
(ii) The Federal Register notice published under this paragraph shall invite public comment on the proposal, generally for a period of 15 days.
(2) New activities--(i) In general. In the case of a notice under this subpart involving an activity that is not listed in § 225.28 and that has not been previously approved by the Board by order, the Board shall send notice of the proposal to the Federal Register for publication, unless the Board determines that the notificant has not demonstrated that the activity is so closely related to banking or to managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto. The Federal Register notice shall invite public comment on the proposal for a reasonable period of time, generally for 30 days.
(ii) Time for publication. The Board shall send the notice required under this paragraph to the Federal Register within 10 business days of acceptance by the Reserve Bank. The Board may extend the 10-day period for an additional 30 calendar days upon notice to the notificant. In the event notice of a proposal is not published for comment, the Board shall inform the notificant of the reasons for the decision.
(d) Action on notices--(1) Reserve Bank action--(i) In general. Within 30 calendar days after receipt by the Reserve Bank of a notice filed pursuant to paragraphs (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section, the Reserve Banks shall:
(B) Refer the notice to the Board for decision because action under delegated authority is not appropriate.
(ii) Return of incomplete notice. Within 7 calendar days of receipt, the Reserve Bank may return any notice as informationally incomplete that does not contain all of the information required by this subpart. The return of such a notice shall be deemed action on the notice.
(iii) Notice of action. The Reserve Bank shall promptly notify the bank holding company of any action or referral under this paragraph.
(iv) Close of public comment period. The Reserve Bank shall not approve any notice under this paragraph (d)(1) of this section prior to the third business day after the close of the public comment period, unless an emergency exists that requires expedited or immediate action.
(2) Board action; internal schedule. The Board seeks to act on every notice referred to it for decision within 60 days of the date that the notice is filed with the Reserve Bank. If the Board is unable to act within this period, the Board shall notify the notificant and explain the reasons and the date by which the Board expects to act.
(3)(i) Required time limit for System action. The Board or the Reserve Bank shall act on any notice under this section within 60 days after the submission of a complete notice.
(ii) Extension of required period for action (A) In general.--The Board may extend the 60-day period required for Board action under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section for an additional 30 days upon notice to the notificant.
(B) Unlisted activities. If a notice involves a proposal to engage in an activity that is not listed in § 225.28, the Board may extend the period required for Board action under paragraph (d)(3)(i) of this section for an additional 90 days. This 90-day extension is in addition to the 30-day extension period provided in paragraph (d)(3)(ii)(A) of this section. The Board shall notify the notificant that the notice period has been extended and explain the reasons for the extension.
(4) Requests for additional information. The Board or the Reserve Bank may modify the information requirements under this section or at any time request any additional information that either believes is needed for a decision on any notice under this section.
(5) Tolling of period. The Board or the Reserve Bank may at any time extend or toll the time period for action on a notice for any period with the consent of the notificant.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 225.24]
[Section 225.24 amended at 59 Fed. Reg. 54805, November 2, 1994; 62 Fed. Reg. 9332, February 28, 1997, effective April 21, 1997; 62 Fed. Reg. 60640, November 12, 1997; 65 Fed. Reg. 14438, March 17, 2000, effective March 11, 2000]
§ 225.25 Hearings, alteration of activities, and other matters.
(a) Hearings--(1) Procedure to request hearing. Any request for a hearing on a notice under this subpart shall comply with the provisions of 12 CFR 262.3(e).
(2) Determination to hold hearing. The Board may order a formal or informal hearing or other proceeding on a notice as provided in 12 CFR 262.3(i)(2). The Board shall order a hearing only if there are disputed issues of material fact that cannot be resolved in some other manner.
(3) Extension of period for hearing. The Board may extend the time for action on any notice for such time as is reasonably necessary to conduct a hearing and evaluate the hearing record. Such extension shall not exceed 91 calendar days after the date of submission to the Board of the complete record on the notice. The procedures for computation of the 91-day rule as set forth in § 225.16(f) apply to notices under this subpart that involve hearings.
(b) Approval through failure to act. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a) of this section or § 225.24(d)(5), a notice under this subpart shall be deemed to be approved at the conclusion of the period that begins on the date the complete notice is received by the Reserve Bank or the Board and that ends 60 calendar days plus any applicable extension and tolling period thereafter.
(2) Complete notice. For purposes of paragraph (b)(1) of this section, a notice shall be deemed complete at such time as it contains all information required by this subpart and all other information requested by the Board or the Reserve Bank.
(c) Notice to expand or alter nonbanking activities--(1) De novo expansion. A notice under this subpart is required to open a new office or to form a subsidiary to engage in, or to relocate an existing office engaged in, a nonbanking activity that the Board has previously approved for the bank holding company under this regulation, only if:
(i) The Board's prior approval was limited geographically;
(ii) The activity is to be conducted in a country outside of the United States and the bank holding company has not previously received prior Board approval under this regulation to engage in the activity in that country; or
(iii) The Board or appropriate Reserve Bank has notified the company that a notice under this subpart is required.
(2) Activities outside United States. With respect to activities to be engaged in outside the United States that require approval under this subpart, the procedures of this section apply only to activities to be engaged in directly by a bank holding company that is not a qualifying foreign banking organization, or by a nonbank subsidiary of a bank holding company approved under this subpart. Regulation K (12 CFR part 211) governs other international operations of bank holding companies.
(3) Alteration of nonbanking activity. Unless otherwise permitted by the Board, a notice under this subpart is required to alter a nonbanking activity in any material respect from that considered by the Board in acting on the application or notice to engage in the activity.
(d) Emergency savings association acquisitions. In the case of a notice to acquire a savings association, the Board may modify or dispense with the public notice and hearing requirements of this subpart if the Board finds that an emergency exists that requires the Board to act immediately and the primary federal regulator of the institution concurs.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 225.25]
[Section 225.25 amended at 51 Fed. Reg. 36211, October 9, 1986, effective November 7, 1986; 51 Fed. Reg. 40000, November 4, 1986, effective December 15, 1986; 54 Fed. Reg. 37301, September 8, 1989, effective October 10, 1989; 57 Fed. Reg. 20961, May 18, 1992, effective May 14, 1992; 57 Fed. Reg. 41387, September 10, 1992; 62 Fed. Reg. 9333, February 28, 1997, effective April 21, 1997; 62 Fed. Reg. 60640, November 12, 1997]
§ 225.26 Factors considered in acting on nonbanking proposals.
(a) In general. In evaluating a notice under § 225.23 or § 225.24, the Board shall consider whether the notificant's performance of the activities can reasonably be expected to produce benefits to the public (such as greater convenience, increased competition, and gains in efficiency) that outweigh possible adverse effects (such as undue concentration of resources, decreased or unfair competition, conflicts of interest, and unsound banking practices).
(b) Financial and managerial resources. Consideration of the factors in paragraph (a) of this section includes an evaluation of the financial and managerial resources of the notificant, including its subsidiaries and any company to be acquired, the effect of the proposed transaction on those resources, and the management expertise, internal control and risk-management systems, and capital of the entity conducting the activity.
(c) Competitive effect of de novo proposals. Unless the record demonstrates otherwise, the commencement or expansion of a nonbanking activity de novo is presumed to result in benefits to the public through increased competition.
(e) Conditional approvals. The Board may impose conditions on any approval, including conditions to address permissibility, financial, managerial, safety and soundness, competitive, compliance, conflicts of interest, or other concerns to ensure that approval is consistent with the relevant statutory factors and other provisions of the BHC Act.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 225.26]
§ 225.27 Procedures for determining scope of nonbanking activities.
(a) Advisory opinions regarding scope of previously approved nonbanking activities--(1) Request for advisory opinion. Any person may submit a request to the Board for an advisory opinion regarding the scope of any permissible nonbanking activity. The request shall be submitted in writing to the Board and shall identify the proposed parameters of the activity, or describe the service or product that will be provided, and contain an explanation supporting an interpretation regarding the scope of the permissible nonbanking activity.
(2) Response to request. The Board shall provide an advisory opinion within 45 days of receiving a written request under this paragraph.
(b) Procedure for consideration of new activities--(1) Initiation of proceeding. The Board may, at any time, on its own initiative or in response to a written request from any person, initiate a proceeding to determine whether any activity is so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto.
(2) Requests for determination. Any request for a Board determination that any activity is so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto, shall be submitted to the Board in writing, and shall contain evidence that the proposed activity is so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto.
(3) Publication. The Board shall publish in the Federal Register notice that it is considering the permissibility of a new activity and invite public comment for a period of at least 30 calendar days. In the case of a request submitted under paragraph (b) of this section, the Board may determine not to publish notice of the request if the Board determines that the requester has provided no reasonable basis for a determination that the activity is so closely related to banking, or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto, and notifies the requester of the determination.
(4) Comments and hearing requests. Any comment and any request for a hearing regarding a proposal under this section shall comply with the provisions of § 262.3(e) of the Board's Rules of Procedure (12 CFR 262.3(e)).
[Codifed to 12 C.F.R. § 225.27]
§ 225.28 List of permissible nonbanking activities.
(a) Closely related nonbanking activities. The activities listed in paragraph (b) of this section are so closely related to banking or managing or controlling banks as to be a proper incident thereto, and may be engaged in by a bank holding company or its subsidiary in accordance with the requirements of this regulation.
(b) Activities determined by regulation to be permissible--(1) Extending credit and servicing loans. Making, acquiring, brokering, or servicing loans or other extensions of credit (including factoring, issuing letters of credit and accepting drafts) for the company's account or for the account of others.
(2) Activities related to extending credit. Any activity usual in connection with making, acquiring, brokering or servicing loans or other extensions of credit, as determined by the Board. The Board has determined that the following activities are usual in connection with making, acquiring, brokering or servicing loans or other extensions of credit:
(i) Real estate and personal property appraising. Performing appraisals of real estate and tangible and intangible personal property, including securities.
(iii) Arranging commercial real estate equity financing. Acting as intermediary for the financing of commercial or industrial income-producing real estate by arranging for the transfer of the title, control, and risk of such a real estate project to one or more investors, if the bank holding company and its affiliates do not have an interest in, or participate in managing or developing, a real estate project for which it arranges equity financing, and do not promote or sponsor the development of the property.
(iii) Check-guaranty services. Authorizing a subscribing merchant to accept personal checks tendered by the merchant's customers in payment for goods and services, and purchasing from the merchant validly authorized checks that are subsequently dishonored.
(iv) Collection agency services. Collecting overdue accounts receivable, either retail or commercial.
(v) Credit bureau services. Maintaining information related to the credit history of consumers and providing the information to a credit grantor who is considering a borrower's application for credit or who has extended credit to the borrower.
(vi) Asset management, servicing, and collection activities. Engaging under contract with a third party in asset management, servicing, and collection3 of assets of a type that an insured depository institution may originate and own, if the company does not engage in real property management or real estate brokerage services as part of these services.
(vii) Acquiring debt in default. Acquiring debt that is in default at the time of acquisition, if the company:
(A) Divests shares or assets securing debt in default that are not permissible investments for bank holding companies, within the time period required for divestiture of property acquired in satisfaction of a debt previously contracted under § 225.12(b);4
(B) Stands only in the position of a creditor and does not purchase equity of obligors of debt in default (other than equity that may be collateral for such debt); and
(C) Does not acquire debt in default secured by shares of a bank or bank holding company.
(viii) Real estate settlement servicing. Providing real estate settlement services.5
(3) Leasing personal or real property. Leasing personal or real property or acting as agent, broker, or adviser in leasing such property if:
(i) The lease is on a nonoperating basis;6 2-28-97>
(ii) The initial term of the lease is at least 90 days;
(iii) In the case of leases involving real property:
(A) At the inception of the initial lease, the effect of the transaction will yield a return that will compensate the lessor for not less than the lessor's full investment in the property plus the estimated total cost of financing the property over the term of the lease from rental payments, estimated tax benefits, and the estimated residual value of the property at the expiration of the initial lease; and
(4) Operating nonbank depository institutions--(i) Industrial banking. Owning, controlling, or operating an industrial bank, Morris Plan bank, or industrial loan company, so long as the institution is not a bank.
(ii) Operating savings association. Owning, controlling, or operating a savings association, if the savings association engages only in deposit-taking activities, lending, and other activities that are permissible for bank holding companies under this subpart C.
(5) Trust company functions. Performing functions or activities that may be performed by a trust company (including activities of a fiduciary, agency, or custodial nature), in the manner authorized by federal or state law, so long as the company is not a bank for purposes of section 2(c) of the Bank Holding Company Act.
(6) Financial and investment advisory activities. Acting as investment or financial advisor to any person, including (without, in any way, limiting the foregoing):
(i) Serving as investment adviser (as defined in section 2(a)(20) of the Investment Company Act of 1940, 15 U.S.C. 80a--2(a)(20)), to an investment company registered under that act, including sponsoring, organizing, and managing a closed-end investment company;
(ii) Furnishing general economic information and advice, general economic statistical forecasting services, and industry studies;
(iii) Providing advice in connection with mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, investments, joint ventures, leveraged buyouts, recapitalizations, capital structurings, financing transactions and similar transactions, and conducting financial feasibility studies;7
(iv) Providing information, statistical forecasting, and advice with respect to any transaction in foreign exchange, swaps, and similar transactions, commodities, and any forward contract, option, future, option on a future, and similar instruments;
(v) Providing educational courses, and instructional materials to consumers on individual financial management matters; and
(vi) Providing tax-planning and tax-preparation services to any person.
(7) Agency transactional services for customer investments--(i) Securities brokerage. Providing securities brokerage services (including securities clearing and/or securities execution services on an exchange), whether alone or in combination with investment advisory services, and incidental activities (including related securities credit activities and custodial services), if the securities brokerage services are restricted to buying and selling securities solely as agent for the account of customers and do not include securities underwriting or dealing.
(ii) Riskless principal transactions. Buying and selling in the secondary market all types of securities on the order of customers as a "riskless principal" to the extent of engaging in a transaction in which the company, after receiving an order to buy (or sell) a security from a customer, purchases (or sells) the security for its own account to offset a contemporaneous sale to (or purchase from) the customer. This does not include:
(A) Selling bank-ineligible securities8 at the order of a customer that is the issuer of the securities, or selling bank-ineligible securities in any transaction where the company has a contractual agreement to place the securities as agent of the issuer; or
(B) Acting as a riskless principal in any transaction involving a bank-ineligible security for which the company or any of its affiliates acts as underwriter (during the period of the underwriting or for 30 days thereafter) or dealer.9
(iii) Private placement services. Acting as agent for the private placement of securities in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933 (1933 Act) and the rules of the Securities and Exchange Commission, if the company engaged in the activity does not purchase or repurchase for its own account the securities being placed, or hold in inventory unsold portions of issues of these securities.
(iv) Futures commission merchant. Acting as a futures commission merchant (FCM) for unaffiliated persons in the execution, clearance, or execution and clearance of any futures contract and option on a futures contract traded on an exchange in the United States or abroad if:
(A) The activity is conducted through a separately incorporated subsidiary of the bank holding company, which may engage in activities other than FCM activities (including, but not limited to, permissible advisory and trading activities); and
(B) The parent bank holding company does not provide a guarantee or otherwise become liable to the exchange or clearing association other than for those trades conducted by the subsidiary for its own account or for the account of any affiliate.
(v) Other transactional services. Providing to customers as agent transactional services with respect to swaps and similar transactions, any transaction described in paragraph (b)(8) of this section, any transaction that is permissible for a state member bank, and any other transaction involving a forward contract, option, futures, option on a futures or similar contract (whether traded on an exchange or not) relating to a commodity that is traded on an exchange.
(8) Investment transactions as principal--(i) Underwriting and dealing in government obligations and money market instruments. Underwriting and dealing in obligations of the United States, general obligations of states and their political subdivisions, and other obligations that state member banks of the Federal Reserve System may be authorized to underwrite and deal in under 12 U.S.C. 24 and 335, including banker's acceptances and certificates of deposit, under the same limitations as would be applicable if the activity were performed by the bank holding company's subsidiary member banks or its subsidiary nonmember banks as if they were member banks.
(ii) Investing and trading activities. Engaging as principal in:
(A) Foreign exchange;
(B) Forward contracts, options, futures, options on futures, swaps, and similar contracts, whether traded on exchanges or not, based on any rate, price, financial asset (including gold, silver, platinum, palladium, copper, or any other metal approved by the Board), nonfinancial asset, or group of assets, other than a bank-ineligible security,10 if:
(2) The contract requires cash settlement;
(3) The contract allows for assignment, termination, or offset prior to delivery or expiration, and the company--
(i) Makes every reasonable effort to avoid taking or making delivery of the asset underlying the contract; or
(ii) Receives and instantaneously transfers title to the underlying asset, by operation of contract and without taking or making physical delivery of the asset; or
(4) The contract does not allow for assignment, termination, or offset prior to delivery or expiration and is based on an asset for which futures contracts or options on futures contracts have been approved for trading on a U.S. contract market by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and the company--
(i) Makes every reasonable effort to avoid taking or making delivery of the asset underlying the contract; or
(ii) Receives and instantaneously transfers title to the underlying asset, by operation of contract and without taking or making physical delivery of the asset.
(C) Forward contracts, options,11 futures, options on futures, swaps, and similar contracts, whether traded on exchanges or not, based on an index of a rate, a price, or the value of any financial asset, nonfinancial asset, or group of assets, if the contract requires cash settlement.
(iii) Buying and selling bullion, and related activities. Buying, selling and storing bars, rounds, bullion, and coins of gold, silver, platinum, palladium, copper, and any other metal approved by the Board, for the company's own account and the account of others, and providing incidental services such as arranging for storage, safe custody, assaying, and shipment.
(9) Management consulting and counseling activities--(i) Management consulting. (A) Providing management consulting advice:12
(1) On any matter to unaffiliated depository institutions, including commercial banks, savings and loan associations, savings banks, credit unions, industrial banks, Morris Plan banks, cooperative banks, industrial loan companies, trust companies, and branches or agencies of foreign banks;
(2) On any financial, economic, accounting, or audit matter to any other company.
(B) A company conducting management consulting activities under this subparagraph and any affiliate of such company may not:
(1) Own or control, directly or indirectly, more than 5 percent of the voting securities of the client institution; and
(2) Allow a management official, as defined in 12 CFR 212.2(h), of the company or any of its affiliates to serve as a management official of the client institution, except where such interlocking relationship is permitted pursuant to an exemption granted under 12 CFR 212.4(b) or otherwise permitted by the Board.
(C) A company conducting management consulting activities may provide management consulting services to customers not described in paragraph (b)(9)(i)(A)(1) of this section or regarding matters not described in paragraph (b)(9)(i)(A)(2) of this section, if the total annual revenue derived from those management consulting services does not exceed 30 percent of the company's total annual revenue derived from management consulting activities.
(ii) Employee benefits consulting services. Providing consulting services to employee benefit, compensation and insurance plans, including designing plans, assisting in the implementation of plans, providing administrative services to plans, and developing employee communication programs for plans.
(iii) Career counseling services. Providing career counseling services to:
(A) A financial organization13 and individuals currently employed by, or recently displaced from, a financial organization;
(B) Individuals who are seeking employment at a financial organization; and
(C) Individuals who are currently employed in or who seek positions in the finance, accounting, and audit departments of any company.
(10) Support services--(i) Courier services. Providing courier services for:
(A) Checks, commercial papers, documents and written instruments (excluding currency or bearer-type negotiable instruments) that are exchanged among banks and financial institutions; and
(B) Audit and accounting media of a banking or financial nature and other business records and documents used in processing such media.14
(ii) Printing and selling MICR-encoded items. Printing and selling checks and related documents, including corporate image checks, cash tickets, voucher checks, deposit slips, savings withdrawal packages, and other forms that require Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) encoding.
(11) Insurance agency and underwriting--(i) Credit insurance. Acting as principal, agent, or broker for insurance (including home mortgage redemption insurance) that is:
(A) Directly related to an extension of credit by the bank holding company or any of its subsidiaries; and
(B) Limited to ensuring the repayment of the outstanding balance due on the extension of credit15 in the event of the death, disability, or involuntary unemployment of the debtor.
(ii) Finance company subsidiary. Acting as agent or broker for insurance directly related to an extension of credit by a finance company16 that is a subsidiary of a bank holding company, if:
(A) The insurance is limited to ensuring repayment of the outstanding balance on such extension of credit in the event of loss or damage to any property used as collateral for the extension of credit; and
(B) The extension of credit is not more than $10,000, or $25,000 if it is to finance the purchase of a residential manufactured home17 and the credit is secured by the home; and
(C) The applicant commits to notify borrowers in writing that:
(1) They are not required to purchase such insurance from the applicant;
(2) Such insurance does not insure any interest of the borrower in the collateral; and
(iii) Insurance in small towns. Engaging in any insurance agency activity in a place where the bank holding company or a subsidiary of the bank holding company has a lending office and that:
(A) Has a population not exceeding 5,000 (as shown on the preceding decennial census); or
(B) Has inadequate insurance agency facilities, as determined by the Board, after notice and opportunity for hearing.
(iv) Insurance-agency activities conducted on May 1, 1982. Engaging in any specific insurance-agency activity18 if the bank holding company, or subsidiary conducting the specific activity, conducted such activity on May 1, 1982, or received Board approval to conduct such activity on or before May 1, 1982.19 A bank holding company or subsidiary engaging in a specific insurance agency activity under this clause may:
(A) Engage in such specific insurance agency activity only at locations:
(1) In the state in which the bank holding company has its principal place of business (as defined in 12 U.S.C. 1842(d));
(2) In any state or states immediately adjacent to such state; and
(3) In any state in which the specific insurance-agency activity was conducted (or was approved to be conducted) by such bank holding company or subsidiary thereof or by any other subsidiary of such bank holding company on May 1, 1982; and
(B) Provide other insurance coverages that may become available after May 1, 1982, so long as those coverages insure against the types of risks as (or are otherwise functionally equivalent to) coverages sold or approved to be sold on May 1, 1982, by the bank holding company or subsidiary.
(v) Supervision of retail insurance agents. Supervising on behalf of insurance underwriters the activities of retail insurance agents who sell:
(A) Fidelity insurance and property and casualty insurance on the real and personal property used in the operations of the bank holding company or its subsidiaries; and
(B) Group insurance that protects the employees of the bank holding company or its subsidiaries.
(vi) Small bank holding companies. Engaging in any insurance-agency activity if the bank holding company has total consolidated assets of $50 million or less. A bank holding company performing insurance-agency activities under this paragraph may not engage in the sale of life insurance or annuities except as provided in paragraphs (b)(11)(i) and (iii) of this section, and it may not continue to engage in insurance-agency activities pursuant to this provision more than 90 days after the end of the quarterly reporting period in which total assets of the holding company and its subsidiaries exceed $50 million.
(vii) Insurance-agency activities conducted before 1971. Engaging in any insurance-agency activity performed at any location in the United States directly or indirectly by a bank holding company that was engaged in insurance-agency activities prior to January 1, 1971, as a consequence of approval by the Board prior to January 1, 1971.
(12) Community development activities--(i) Financing and investment activities. Making equity and debt investments in corporations or projects designed primarily to promote community welfare, such as the economic rehabilitation and development of low-income areas by providing housing, services, or jobs for residents.
(13) Money orders, savings bonds, and traveler's checks. The issuance and sale at retail of money orders and similar consumer-type payment instruments; the sale of U.S. savings bonds; and the issuance and sale of traveler's checks.
(14) Data processing. (i) Providing data processing, data storage and data transmission services, facilities (including data processing and data transmission hardware, software, documentation, or operating personnel), data bases, advice, and access to such services, facilities, or data-bases by any technological means, if:
(A) The data to be processed, stored or furnished are financial, banking, or economic; and
(B) The hardware provided in connection therewith is offered only in conjunction with software designed and marketed for the processing, storage and transmission of financial, banking, or economic data, and where the general purpose hardware does not constitute more than 30 percent of the cost of any packaged offering.
(ii) A company conducting data processing and data transmission activities may conduct data processing, data storage and data transmission activities not described in paragraph (b)(14)(i) of this section if the total annual revenue derived from those activities does not exceed 49 percent of the company's total annual revenues derived from data processing, data storage and data transmission activities.
[Codified to 12 C.F.R. § 225.28]
[Section 225.28 added at 62 Fed. Reg. 9335, February 28, 1997, effective April 21, 1997; 68 Fed. Reg. 39810, July 3, 2003, effective August 4, 2003; amended at 68 Fed. Reg. 68499, December 9, 2003, effective January 8, 2004; 78 Fed. Reg. 62291, October 11, 2013, effective January 1, 2014]
2A bank holding company may acquire voting securities or assets of a savings association or other insured depository institution that is not a bank by using the procedures in § 225.14 of subpart B if the bank holding company and the proposal qualify under that section as if the savings association or other institution were a bank for purposes of that section. Go back to Text
3Asset management services include acting as agent in the liquidation or sale of loans and collateral for loans, including real estate and other assets acquired through foreclosure or in satisfaction of debts previously contracted. Go back to Text
4For this purpose, the divestiture period for property begins on the date that the debt is acquired, regardless of when legal title to the property is acquired. Go back to Text
5For purposes of this section, real estate settlement services do not include providing title insurance as principal, agent, or broker. Go back to Text
6The requirement that the lease be on a nonoperating basis means that the bank holding company may not, directly or indirectly, engage in operating, servicing, maintaining, or repairing leased property during the lease term. For purposes of the leasing of automobiles, the requirement that the lease be on a nonoperating basis means that the bank holding company may not, directly or indirectly: (1) Provide servicing, repair, or maintenance of the leased vehicle during the lease term; (2) purchase parts and accessories in bulk or for an individual vehicle after the lessee has taken delivery of the vehicle; (3) provide the loan of an automobile during servicing of the leased vehicle; (4) purchaseinsurance for the lessee; or (5) provide for the renewal of the vehicle's license merely as a service to the lessee where the lessee could renew the license without authorization from the lessor. The bank holding company may arrange for a third party to provide these services or products. [6 continued] Go back to Text
7Feasibility studies do not include assisting management with the planning or marketing for a given project or providing general operational or management advice. Go back to Text
8A bank-ineligible security is any security that a State member bank is not permitted to underwrite or deal in under 12 U.S.C. 24 and 335. Go back to Text
9A company or its affiliates may not enter quotes for specific bank-ineligible securities in any dealer quotation system in connection with the company's riskless principal transactions; except that the company or its affiliates may enter "bid" or "ask" quotations, or publish "offering wanted" or "bid wanted" notices on trading systems other than NASDAQ or an exchange, if the company or its affiliate does not enter price quotations on different sides of the market for a particular security during any two-day period. Go back to Text
10A bank-ineligible security is any security that a state member bank is not permitted to underwrite or deal in under 12 U.S.C. 24 and 335. Go back to Text
11This reference does not include acting as a dealer in options based on indices of bank-ineligible securities when the options are traded on securities exchanges. These options are securities for purposes of the federal securities laws and bank-ineligible securities for purposes of section 20 of the Glass-Steagall Act, 12 U.S.C. 337. Similarly, this reference does not include acting as a dealer in any other instrument that is a bank-ineligible security for purposes of section 20. A bank holding company may deal in these instruments in accordance with the Board's orders on dealing in bank-ineligible securities. Go back to Text
12In performing this activity, bank holding companies are not authorized to perform tasks or operations or provide services to client institutions either on a daily or continuing basis, except as necessary to instruct the client institution on how to perform such services for itself. See also the Board's interpretation of bank management consulting advice (12 CFR 225.131). Go back to Text
13Financial organization refers to insured depository institution holding companies and their subsidiaries, other than nonbanking affiliates of diversified savings and loan holding companies that engage in activities not permissible under section 4(c)(8) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1842(c)(8)). Go back to Text
14See also the Board's interpretation on courier activities (12 CFR 225.129), which sets forth conditions for bank holding company entry into the activity. Go back to Text
15Extension of credit includes direct loans to borrowers, loans purchased from other lenders, and leases of real or personal property so long as the leases are nonoperating and full-payout leases that meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this section. Go back to Text
16Finance company includes all non-deposit-taking financial institutions that engage in a significant degree of consumer lending (excluding lending secured by first mortgages) and all financial institutions specifically defined by individual states as finance companies and that engage in a significant degree of consumer lending. Go back to Text
17These limitations increase at the end of each calendar year, beginning with 1982, by the percentage increase in the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Go back to Text
18Nothing contained in this provision shall preclude a bank holding company subsidiary that is authorized to engage in a specific insurance-agency activity under this clause from continuing to engage in the particular activity after merger with an affiliate, if the merger is for legitimate business purposes and prior notice has been provided to the Board. Go back to Text
19For the purposes of this paragraph, activities engaged in on May 1, 1982, include activities carried on subsequently as the result of an application to engage in such activities pending before the Board on May 1, 1982, and approved subsequently by the Board or as the result of the acquisition by such company pursuant to a binding written contract entered into on or before May 1, 1982, of another company engaged in such activities at the time of the acquisition. Go back to Text